LASIK or laser eye surgery, more commonly known as selective laser eye surgery or computerized eye correction, is a kind of refractive surgery in which the surgeon reshapes the cornea of the eye by using a laser. The cornea is the transparent covering that protects the eye from any internal or external light. It is made up of many tiny crystalline cells called choroids that are in a semi-circular shape. These choroids can become stained with age and exposure to harmful UV light. The result is that some parts of the eye will not function correctly and cause vision problems. This is where LASIK comes into play.
There are three different types of LASIK procedures. The most common is called PRK (Preparation of Keratomileusis), which is used when the patient has astigmatism and only a small amount of myopia. In this procedure, the surgeon will cut a flap in the top layer of the cornea to remove the excessive tissue and then reshape the cornea to give the patient a better vision. LASEK is also a popular procedure for astigmatism and comes in three varieties: LASIK Basic, Lasik Advanced, and Custom LASIK. A custom-made flap is made by the doctor and then the patient is required to wear glasses or contacts in order to see properly after the procedure.
The main advantage of LASIK over conventional eye surgery is that it corrects not only myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), and astigmatism, but it also corrects the symptoms of these conditions. By removing or correcting the irregular shape of the cornea and the excess tissue, the vision in that eye is corrected. This means that the vision in that eye will be more clear and better than before the surgery. The laser removes all excess tissue and then reshapes the cornea to give a more normal and clear vision.