Eye surgery, more commonly known as ophthalmic surgery, is surgery usually performed on the eye itself or its posterior parts, usually by an ophthalmologist. The eye, a delicate organ, needs extreme care prior to, during, and immediately after a medical procedure, to avoid or minimize further damage to the eye. Complications can result from any eye surgery, including loss of vision, bleeding, infections, scarring, epithelial loss of lining around the cornea, or changes in vision. The eye surgeon will evaluate the patient’s individual eye-related health situation and accordingly perform the most appropriate eye surgery for the patient’s needs.
Vision correction eye surgery may be performed for various reasons. Some patients may have astigmatism and other near-sightedness/farsightedness problems, or other visual impairments that cause blurry vision, or problems with visual accommodation. Some patients may also require correction of their myopia (nearsightedness), hypermetropia (over-sighting), or astigmatism. In addition, some eye surgery may be required to correct eye defects due to disease, age, or congenital abnormalities. Eye surgery may also be required to restore normal vision after an eye injury, such as when a child suffers from cataract, and if the patient’s eyes are damaged due to a traumatic injury.
General anesthesia is used in most eye surgery procedures, although some localized anesthesia may be used for less invasive procedures. The general anesthesia makes the patient unconscious and leaves him/her unable to move. Once the patient is rendered unconscious, the surgeon can use local anesthesia to maintain adequate blood-flow throughout the eye and to reduce discomfort and pain. Generally, you’ll remain awake during the procedure, but your surgeon will be able to instruct you as to what to do if you experience any complications or pain after the procedure.